Breatharianism - Practical guide - Known Breatharians - Point of view - Sources, Resources - Events - About Website

Latest blog posts

please tell me how i can fast my gramma shes dying please help!?
i don t know what to do does anyone else she has severe heart disease and can barely walk from it. please someone help...
Post comment (3)Category: Breatharianism Date: 17.11.2013 5:58:51 Author: evawallace

factors of ecology
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Breatharianism Date: 6.5.2013 9:35:30 Author: GAVANA SAM

Policies to ensure balance between population growth, economic development, environmental protection and natural resource savings

()Policies to ensure balance between population growth, economic development, environmental protection and natural resource savings

Population, Development and Environment is increasingly seen as an organic development strategy of each country as well as globally. Goals have a better life, living, learning conditions, health care and economic opportunity not only be set higher for the current generation but also for future generations . Sustainable development objectives that need to be done through a combination of policies.

Policies in order to achieve a reasonable rate of population growth.

Facing the current population growth, people are threatened by famine 3: hunger, poverty and hunger jobs. Rapid population growth makes the gap between the rich and the poor is growing. In 1991, only 20% of the richest people but make up 85% of world income while in contrast, the poorest 20% of people achieve only 1.4% of the total income of the whole world. Poverty is common phenomenon in developing countries with rapid population growth in these countries is the speed causes high exploitation of natural resources (especially the resources raised), make resource depletion and degradation, reducing biodiversity.

Besides, the water is entering the stage of industrialization and use a large amount of resources to meet the needs of life for the largest number of people to be released to the environment large amounts of waste than ever before.

The Path to the 21st century is to reduce the rate of population growth in order to make the relationship: for every 1% of the population, it should be up 3-4% of national income in order to ensure stability and improve social life of the community and to ensure the development does not exceed the tolerance limits of the ecosystem.

However, the appropriate rate of population growth should be specified based on the ability to develop productive forces, the speed of social and economic development of each country and each region. Industrialized countries, a high level of productive forces, the number of machines used in the production of large proportion and a modern, high labor productivity annual labor demand increased slightly since, even unstable. For these countries, population growth only 0.3 - 0.5% is sufficient to satisfy the labor force.

But in developing countries, the use of human labor (including manual labor) account for a major, low labor productivity, the demand for labor-intensive. Also, in the future, needs to develop the service sector, tourism, health, education, transport, etc. will require increasing labor force in both quantity and quality. In a few decades, the developing countries need population growth rate at around 1% or even 1.5% / year. However, because the rate of population growth in the developing countries today are generally quite high, achieving the target population increased at a rate of 1 - 1.5% of the country requires to have major strategic and appropriate policies to control population.

Can use policy measures directly impact the population variables, such as the one-child policy in China, providing full service measures and family planning ...

Economic approach to population control is the indirect policy measures to reduce the birth rate, decreased family size. It is done through the establishment of factors can affect the size of the family, to make changes to these factors. To be able to use this approach, we have to be decided on how fertility is affected by the economic situation of the family. Socio-economic development, improve living conditions and opportunities for education, employment, human health, especially to facilitate women's development ... is considered to be the policy measures Indirect population.

Distribution of population policy and rational use of labor

For historical reasons, the general situation of many countries of the... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 21.1.2013 9:22:19 Author: nguyenthuat

Poverty leads to indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources

()Poverty leads to indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources

Although different countries around the world have very different conceptions of poverty standards, but poverty can say first of all is the lack of basic human needs such as food, clothing, housing, education out. The phenomenon of poverty - poverty of the world mainly due to the inequitable distribution for a large number of people do not achieve the minimum standard of living necessary, make the physical and mental power of workers is limited, innovative creation of landless laborers to develop.

There have been more convincing evidence that the negative impact on the environment related to population growth as a part of people facing poverty.

Due to face immediate survival, the poor is both a cause of environmental problems, just a victim of the environment's destruction. It is a "vicious circle" of poverty. Due to lack of funds, lack of knowledge and the means of production, poor exploitation of natural resources indiscriminately, waste, causing resource depletion, pollution and environmental degradation, suggesting productivity of crops and livestock reduction, environmental hygiene conditions worsen. This makes people more and more poverty and suffering from various diseases.

The poorest segments of the population often live in the most sensitive areas, the most vulnerable environment. In such areas, the environmental issues are often mixed with efforts to meet the essential needs of the poor, such as food, food, fuel, housing, health and education.

The increase in speed and scale exploitation of marine resources in general and seafood in particular the overuse of the same technical facilities and poor fishing practices obsolete, destructive as mine, medicine explosion, network scan ... destroying the marine environment on a large scale. Marine resources, the main livelihood of the coastal poor, increasingly exhausted to make their lives more difficult, more poverty.

Due to the requirements of intensive farming, increasing volume increasing use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers also no small harm to the environment. Paddy land with the increasing amount of toxins, killing fish - shrimp - aquatic animals and plants, the source of life is important to provide protein, impacts on human health. Due to lack of knowledge, many regions of residence of the poor, still exist some habits, unhygienic living habits, causing a negative impact on the environment as defecate indiscriminately, use of fresh applied field, throwing litter and dead animals on the road, lakes, rivers and streams; pigs grazing, cattle ...

Lack of sanitation facilities to ensure the majority of poor people to defecate on plantations or rivers, streams, lakes, ponds pollute the water, soil or using the toilet does not guarantee hygiene requirements.

Lack of clean water and to use water from ponds, lakes, rivers, streams or shallow wells does not guarantee safety and hygiene is the cause and spread of infectious diseases and infections such as intestinal diseases, sore eyes, diarrhea, fever ...

Poor people in rural areas, due to very low income should have tried to take advantage of inexpensive and readily available fuel sources such as straw, leaves, manure, etc., the poor in the city also use other types of cheap fuel such as wood, charcoal ... This is the cause of the situation, "indoor pollution", pollutants are toxic and very negative impact on human health, especially women and children I ...

Poverty, backwardness, underdevelopment is the reason why the rate of population growth in high-poverty areas. The poor lack or do not have access to the knowledge, methods and family planning services; economic costs for children of low compared to the benefit of the children that the poor want to have more children.

In a nutshell, between poverty and environmental relationships... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 10:59:8 Author: nguyenthuat

The impact of population growth on resource use
{}The impact of population growth on resource use

The total environmental impact of the population depends on the population and the variables related to the per capita impact. This model shows that there can not continue to increase population without causing a serious impact on our planet, because the natural tendency of human beings always want to enjoy more, that is, per capita consumption will increase and therefore the impact of technology through the exploitation and processing of natural resources can not be reduced significantly. As Ehrlich speech later in 1994:

"... There can be no sustainable development without the restrictions on population growth rate ..." Even when adopted by a simple mass produced chicken still need a power source and minimum material for each of (A) and the second law of thermodynamics is also clearly shows the limits of efficiency (T) for the energy and matter. The negative impact of the rise in the world's current population manifested in the following aspects:

- Greater pressure on natural resources and environmental earth due to overexploitation of resources to serve the needs of housing, food production, food, industrial production ...

- Creation of centralized waste beyond the natural decomposition of the environment in urban areas, agricultural areas, industrial.

- The growing disparity increases in population growth between industrialized countries and developing countries, leading to pollution due to poverty in the developing countries and the pollution caused by waste surplus in the industrialized countries. Increasing disparities between urban and rural areas, between developed countries and developing countries is one of the causes of migration in all its forms.

- The increase in urban population, the formation of large cities - megacities cause overload, making urban environments are at risk of serious deterioration.

Clean water supply, housing, trees do not meet the population growth; environmental pollution of air, water, solid waste increased; increasing social evils and social management issues in urban areas increasingly difficult.

Since the mid-20th century, the world population increased rapidly, especially in developing countries. If in 1930, the world population is only 2 billion people, has so far reached over 6 billion and could reach 10 billion people by 2050. Due to rapid population growth, in order to maintain the life and development of production, people have exploited mercilessly natural resources extremely diverse and become perpetrators of the destruction and pollution schools, disrupting the ecological balance.

According to calculations of scientists, if the population increased by 1% of national income to increase 3-4% in order to ensure stable living, but if the national income increased by 5% annually, within 10 - 15 years of natural resource use will double. In the past century, humans have exploited the earth 130 billion tons of gas, mass destruction of forests - the "green lungs of the planet"

The mining and processing of raw materials emit a lot of smoke, dust, SO2, NOx cause acid rain damage crops, cause environmental change and human illness. The total amount of pollutants in 1970 is 19 billion tons, but now has grown to more than 40 billion tons. Forest resources of the world are also severely reduced demand for timber, firewood, specialty, medicine ... rise, and many forests are destroyed for cropland and grazing animals; wildfires worsened in many parts of the world. Decline in forest area leads to pressure for land: soil erosion, runoff, silver color, soil salinity; droughts, floods also increased; kinds of wild animals and plants loss of habitat should decline both in terms of type and number of ... The amount of waste water by industrial and agricultural activities also increased along with the increase of the population and result in nearly... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 9:25:9 Author: nguyenthuat

Operators and the ability to run out of resources capable of regeneration

()Operators and the ability to run out of resources capable of regeneration

Extraction yield is the amount of resources we get from renewable natural resources for economic purposes.

- Reserves availability of capital resources that is the natural resources in the environment.

-So for renewable resources, between mining production and capital stock have binding relationships very tight che.Neu we exploit renewable output exceeds the capital stock has generated, risk of volume depletion is inevitable. Conversely, if we exploit the small amount of regeneration than the capital stock has generated the resource stock that continues tang.Phuong case optimal extraction yield exactly the regeneration by volume inherent quality of the resources available in the environment.

For example: Let's think 1000 fish and every year this volume regeneration by 10%, ie 100, so three possibilities catches occur most ra.Thu, last year we caught 11% available reserves of natural resources, means catching 110 children, so compared to regeneration we caught on available stock is 10 animals, the risk reserve fish will dry dan.Thu two late that we only capture the output level of 9%, which means that the fish caught is 90, compared with a reborn remaining 10 children. Reserves fish tend to proliferate. Third we caught the correct output level of 10% means that catching 100, is equal to the regeneration created by existing reserves, so we still conserve existing reserves but at the same time the optimal exploitation output level reproduction ra.Truong with can call 100 annual fish catch is sustainable yield.

In practical studies from renewable resources, the ecological economic scientists have discovered that in order to be able rebirth, abstract of individuals of the resources to have a certain level limits are low regeneration capacity of the resource will be lost, it is known as the resource above is great chung.Trong for example, instead of 1000 fish, we started with 500 children, we can not assume set that catches is 10% ie 50 children. whereas 500 fish that whether we have identified is the limited reserves for regeneration or chua.Vi minimum ensure that 500 fish regeneration 10% per year up to 50 children. On the other hand, for the animals, for our survival and regeneration is closely related to the natural habitat, that is, when the colony of a certain species drops below a certain size it will not feed the wildlife. This happened with the elephants in the mountain forest in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. When forests are narrow they are no longer inhabited and the result is returned to the village vandalism, the risk of decline in reserves

In the economic management of renewable resources, the problem is closely related to each other renewable products, stock availability and exploitation efforts, for mining efforts will be closely associated with provide income compared to the cost of removal. Thus modeling of these problems is the main target for economic management in order to effectively exploit the resources can recycling.

Aims to illustrate the above theoretical issues, through our model assumptions for the economic analysis of the nature of the exploitation of natural resources can recycling, from there take a position on sustainable management for this type of resource in mining practices like.

 For example: fish stocks continue to increase, but only up to the tolerable level of the surrounding environment. Any increase in volume will lead to some more fish may die due to lack of do fish an.Tru same relation to the possibility of environmental bear called natural reserve balance: This is the output fish will survive if they are absolutely not highly bat.Trong the natural balance of fish die balanced by the number of students, if for some reason, the number of deaths increased, the source fish can fall below the tolerance of the environment and development... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 8:7:28 Author: nguyenthuat

Some basic economic principles for the exploitation of non-renewable resources.

<>Some basic economic principles for the exploitation of non-renewable resources.

For the extraction of non-renewable resources such as mining, mining companies must go through a three-stage process and complicated mutual relations is developing exploration and exploitation. These stages are shown in the following diagram:

One feature of the mining industry is unlike most other production areas, production during any period that is not independent of the production in any period khac.Toc current level of the exploitation of a mineral will affect the amount of mineral exploitation in the period factor lai.Do that the cost of mining a mineral today depends not only on the level of current use of necessary production inputs (labor, energy, etc.) and their prices but also on the level of input use in the past and the impact of current mining on future profitability of mineral deposits.

- Current mining activities may affect the level of reserves available for future use in two opposite ways. An increase in the exploitation rate in the current period may reduce the degree of a particular mine reserves. In contrast, such an extraction rate can increase the detection and development activities will lead to an increase in reserves of the future.

Mining industry is subject to significant government intervention. This intervention by the policy objectives such as the stimulation of economic growth, the need to ensure national self-sufficiency for strategic materials, enhance coherence in the protection of natural environment school.

For renewable resources and non-renewable discount rate plays an important role in determining the rate of use of that resource. Namely:

+ For renewable resources:

= Discount rate of biological growth capital growth + value

+ For non-renewable resources

Since there is no growth and function has a fixed size, so the formula becomes:

Discount rate = capital value growth

This means that non-renewable resources would have been exhausted by the method of the growth rate of resource exploitation must by extracting khau.Cong rate this formula is known as the simple Hotelling's formula (after essay analysis of Hotelling published nam1931), because it only applied to where simple nhat.Chang term as firms or companies with mining cost of zero.

Natural resource economics resource considered "underground" as capital. By leaving the original in-ground resources (general reserve), the resource owner can expect capital income for resource prices increase over time. People will not care between keeping resources in the ground and dig it if the rate of return of capital income by the interest rate in the alternative asset, because the owner could exploit now and sales revenue to invest in any other place in the economy (in a positive interest rate).

As we have no realistic assumptions about the exploit no-cost pricing of natural resources in the ground like the price of the resource has been exploited (understood as the source). But when we leave this assumption (and now we have a positive extraction costs), we have two different prices. Prices in the ground (understood in a different way such as rent, deposits or rental) is now smaller than the source (the difference in operating costs). Given that a fixed amount of mineral operators, the cost of mining will include an additional factor (we call the user cost). User costs reflect the opportunity cost of current exploitation in future profits because of a mining unit of output current is no longer mined in the future (and is taken to profit common in the future). Future profits "lost" by reducing the amount of minerals available is really a cost for mining, as a current input costs, so:

Mining cost = cost + users current operating expenses

and optimum price = cost + cost of mining user

Simple model... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (3)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 5:59:23 Author: nguyenthuat

Non-renewable resources

)))))))))))))))) Non-renewable resources ((((((((((((((((((((

- Individual characteristics of these resources do not have the ability to regenerate is a fixed total reserve created by nature, due to the current so as to use it in the future more and more scarce, the expression concept of sustainable output will not match for this resource, instead we need to consider in the management of non-renewable resources are depleting and speed number is how much to harvest for economic te.Lien to this problem, we need to consider the economic principles in the concept of scarce natural resources and measuring scarcity.

- Ability to resource availability and scarcity.

+ Simple economic terms, the scarcity will be reflected in the cost and price. The fact that the measure and predict availability and scarcity of natural resources now and in the future is very complex tap.Viec requires to have a harmonious combination of science such as physics, material science and technology and data, methods and techniques of economic analysis te.Dem reference potential reserves of non-renewable resources for future resource utilization rate hybrid (associated with population growth, technical progress of science and technology, and the ability to meet the requirements of the national economy, etc.) this is clearly a job uncertainty. So the debate about scarcity will be a part of the problem of environmental ideology.

+ The "limit of the tangtruong" (LTG-Limits to growth) is synonymous with "limited availability of natural resources for growth" involves two limits may be appropriate for economic growth fact that:

. Limited ability of the natural environment to receive waste emitted by the economic system

. The limited nature of the non-renewable natural resources.

We associated with look promising of Malthus (by name of Malthus, whose famous article about the scarcity was published in 1798). From this perspective, the absolute physical scarcity

- The exhaustion of all natural resources, is predicted as a result may occur in the near and medium term future. Another point contact neo Manthus emphasized the importance of the environmental limits for the exploitation of natural resources. This argument is mainly for that to continue to exploit the resources of increasingly lower quality will require a huge amount of energy, which will create a level of acceptable pollution and damaging the landscape and facilities to meet the people

After Ricardo's work was published in 1817, with opposing views of Ricardo, a more optimistic picture of resource scarcity is emerging that the effects of the depletion of natural Resources will manifest itself in an increase in material costs and prices over time as the mining companies of low-quality resources. However, these effects will be offset by the mining company khac.Cac factors will put more effort in the exploration and discovery of new mines, and technological advances will allow use replacement deposits, such as drilling and mining exploration allows more efficient and new processing methods will improve the quality of resources. In addition, the market will react to the signal increases the cost or price by the replacement of new materials or new ways of using materials, the ability to increase waste recycling activities will tend to be businesses and preferred choice.

For simple economic model, we can understand that the mining company will deal with the two basic inter-agency decisions are:

-Exploitation of natural resources and speed

- Exploitation period (or total mining reserve)

Economic exploitation rate is determined by balancing the desired price has been discounted, it should be noted that the operating costs include not only the effects of the current operators on current costs but also effects of the current mining costs and future profits (user costs)

Total... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 4:34:31 Author: nguyenthuat

Mining models and the ability to run out of resources capable of regeneration.

()Mining models and the ability to run out of resources capable of regeneration.

Practical recognition of the scarcity of resources; physical scarcity indicators

The physical measure of scarcity can be calculated by combining geographic data on mineral reserves or energy to a number of predictions about the demand for these resources. But for the scale estimates reserves of non-renewable resources are adjusted often xuyen.Theo as perceptions of the U.S. Geological Survey, gave estimates by country and all demand for reserves and potential reserves of mineral deposits., 1972 classification system of the agency based on the preliminary division of Mckelveys most widely accepted and clear distinction between reserves and resources of the deposit nguyen.Loai including all geological mineral resources defined for the economic exploitation and grouped reserves have been identified, likely reserves and reserve may be based on the basis of on the places chat.Tat the other mines called resource for undiscovered reasons or because the exploitation is not feasible (may be due to difficulties in the economic and technical issues hinder exploitation). This resource is divided into two groups in terms of margin and bottom margin. Define marginal groups can exploit resources at 1.5 times the price current price and marginal groups under and under are not able to exploit resources even at this higher price . Classification of McKelvey given published in 1976,

+ Initial resources: the number of resources before they are put into production

+ Natural Resources has identified: Are the resources decentralized locations, their quality and quantity are known or estimated from specific geological identified. This class includes the components: Economics and the economy and can be broken down based on certain reasons geologically groups were measured (shown), are indicated (likely high) be inferred (possible)

+ Proven Resources, has been measured plus indicated.

+ Measuring-scale, shape, depth and mineral content of the resource is set clear

+ Is an indicator that is inadequate geological data such as resource data measured but can still be good enough to estimate the size, shape, etc. the characteristics of minerals.

+ Is deduced: That is the continuity assumption for the data, the estimates are not supported due to the sample and measuring.

+ Deposit facility: it is part of the resources have been identified to satisfy the minimum standards of physical and chemical predetermined related to current mining and production practical production, including the standards for grade, quality, thickness and afternoon sau.Co basis reserves are proven resources in place, estimated reserves from proven resources . Based on the reserve to determine the resources belong to the current economic reserves, marginal economic and some current but less than marginal.

+ Reserves - that can exploit the reserves or economic production at the time of determination

+ Natural Resources not to be discovered - The existence of this resource is assumed to be true only includes minerals separated from the resource has been defined.

+ Resources assumptions: that undiscovered resources similar to the minerals were identified and can reasonably likely to exist in the same region or in the production conditions similar geology.

+ Natural Resources speculation, which is the undiscovered resources, can be expected to occur at the tissue known in favorable geological layers, where undiscovered mineral, or mineral production so far has been aware of the economic potential.

The basic purpose of the McKelvey system is support for the long-term policy planning in the exploitation and use of natural resources, by combining information about the possible discovery of minerals new, the development process for the economic exploitation of minerals can... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (4)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 3:20:50 Author: nguyenthuat

Management of wildlife resources

() Wildlife Management:

Wildlife management involves the prosperity and protection of wildlife habitats, but its prosperity not affect the prosperity of the other species.

Management process must be carried out in stages, but the first stage of the process is to determine the species, even a group of individuals of the species that need protection, then the choice of where appropriate to protect them and others when conducting management must be planned in order to achieve the desired objectives. Understanding of the management plan on the basis of the understanding of the biology of species in need of protection, such as age composition, sex ratio, reproductive index, mortality index, self- protection and the ability to adapt to the environment, the demand for food, water, space, temperature, ... and the ability of the population; this information able to collect as to follow-up check on the reliability of them. These requirements must comply with the conditions of the process so this can be said to explain why wildlife management and as a work of scientific and artistic medium.

a. Prosperity management of wildlife

The prosperity of the management of wildlife, including the number, sex, age, and the distribution of them in the area managed by the measure is closely controlled hunting and activities at risk pollution and habitat disturbance affects the growth and development of protected species. In some developed countries such as the United States, Canada, Sweden, ... conduct wildlife management and protection of law and to determine the exact time in the new year for hunting, specify the means of hunting, such as bows and arrows, shotguns, rifles; World regional term and hunting time; species hunting is allowed; limited number, size, sex of the species are allowed to hunt; each sport hunting permits.

Managers must also take effective measures to manage or eliminate harmful wild animals for cultivation and animal husbandry sectors, dangerous for the hunter, the exploitation of forest products and other group activities close to areas controlled by various measures such as eliminating them by hunting, used seven or poisoned; protection or fencing to limit the management or transfer them somewhere else to protect (Miller, 1988)

b. Management of wildlife habitats need protection

Wildlife species can thrive or not depends on the living conditions in protected areas such as the elements of climate, water, food plants do they like and our relationship with other species in the community not to happen their habitat disturbance.

There are two methods of management of wildlife habitats are managed to locate (in Situ) and ex-situ management (ex Situ); positioning in the management of several advantages compared to ex-situ management for does not change the conditions of life and our relationship with other species in the community.

c. Management of migratory species

Migratory species, mostly water birds such as ducks, geese, swans ... need to have a very special management for the country on their migration route. For example, in Canada, most of these species live here in the summer and they usually migrate to countries in the southern United States and Central American countries, on their migration seems to fall right hunting season so this is a threat to migratory species.

In 1932, a conference was held, including the countries that share this resource aims to restrict hunting and also specifies the conditions for migratory species reside. Subject to the provisions of the Convention, the hunting permits called Duck stamp for each year, the sale of this license gives $ 300 million for each season, the proceeds of property used for research research on them, for the protection and development of this resource as: in addition to protecting existing wetlands can open the dress, the artificial channel to increase housing,... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 20.1.2013 1:32:15 Author: nguyenthuat

Protection of wildlife resources
()Protection of wildlife resources

Currently in the world there are many species of wild animals and plants are in danger of extinction. Before this situation many international organizations established for the purpose to find the appropriate measures to protect wildlife around the world: international organizations to protect nature and natural resources (International Union for the Conversation of Nature and Natural Resources = IUCN), the International Association of protected birds (International Council for Bird Preservation = ICBP) and funds to protect the world's wildlife (Word Wildlife Fund = WWF) has unified view of threats and endangered wildlife species present and provide measures to protect these species. IUCN has collected a list of the world's wild species need to be protected and widely known as the Red Book (The Red Data Book).

Initially the conference on the protection of wildlife involving only a few countries and later as more and more countries participate. One of the agreements were signed in 1975 as international trade agreements on species at risk of extinction (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species = CITES) under the auspices of the Agenda Environmental UN (United Nation Environmental Programme = UNEP), this agreement is hunting associations and operators of 93 countries around the world signed and released a list of 700 endangered species and risk of extinction.

The binding provisions in the agreements signed has reduced the sale against the law for wildlife should be protected. Some countries such as the United States, Canada and the Soviet Union followed and strict implementation of the agreements and has been successful in protecting some species from the danger of extinction. However, some countries do not really care about protecting wildlife species should occur, activities violate the terms of signed agreements, this makes the protection the wildlife does not bring the desired results.

Further penalties on the sale mild to wild creatures offenders led to the illegal trafficking further development because of its high profits, such as in 1979 in Hong Kong who was arrested a Ethiopia 319 skin smuggling of a jaguar African species worth $ 160,000 but only fined $ 1,540. Singapore is considered to be the international center in the middle of these wild species and its products from many countries abroad, this phenomenon also occurs in a number of countries which have not signed the agreement ( Miller, 1988).

In Vietnam, due to many reasons such as war, arson indiscriminate exploitation of forests, over-hunting, habitat destruction or shrink, reduce food ... biological resources should decrease dramatically, many species become rare or endangered. With the support and collaboration of experts from the IUCN international organizations, ICBP, WWF and NYZS (Animal New York) conducts research and the expected number of species included in Vietnam's Red Book includes: 78 species of mammals, 83 species of birds, 54 species of reptiles and amphibians, 37 species of fish, 38 species of freshwater fish, 45 species of marine organisms, 23 freshwater invertebrate animals, two species of land animals, four insect species and 360 plant species and in the process has saved three animals protection from the danger of extinction as the spotted deer (Cervus nippon), Elephant (Elephas maximus) and golden monkey (Macaca mulatta).
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 23:2:58 Author: nguyenthuat

In China, Widening Discontent Among the Communist Party Faithful
---------In China, Widening Discontent Among the Communist Party Faithful----------
Barely two months into their jobs, the Communist Party’s new leaders are being confronted by the challenges posed by a constituency that has generally been one of the party’s most ardent supporters: the middle-class and well-off Chinese who have benefited from a three-decade economic boom.
A widening discontent was evident this month in the anticensorship street protests in the southern city of Guangzhou and in the online outrage that exploded over an extraordinary surge in air pollution in the north. Anger has also reached a boil over fears concerning hazardous tap water and over a factory spill of 39 tons of a toxic chemical in Shanxi Province that has led to panic in nearby cities.

For years, many China observers have asserted that the party’s authoritarian system endures because ordinary Chinese buy into a grand bargain: the party guarantees economic growth, and in exchange the people do not question the way the party rules. Now, many whose lives improved under the boom are reneging on their end of the deal, and in ways more vocal than ever before. Their ranks include billionaires and students, movie stars and homemakers.

Few are advocating an overthrow of the party. Many just want the system to provide a more secure life. But in doing so, they are demanding something that challenges the very nature of the party-controlled state: transparency.

More and more Chinese say they distrust the Wizard-of-Oz-style of control the Communist Party has exercised since it seized power in 1949, and they are asking their leaders to disseminate enough information so they can judge whether officials, who are widely believed to be corrupt, are doing their jobs properly. Without open information and discussion, they say, citizens cannot tell whether officials are delivering on basic needs.

“Chinese people want freedom of speech,” said Xiao Qinshan, 46, a man in a wheelchair at the Guangzhou protests.

China’s new leadership under Xi Jinping, who took over as general secretary of the party in November, is already feeling the pressure of these calls. Mr. Xi has announced a campaign against corruption, and propaganda officials, in a somewhat surprising move, allowed the state news media to run in-depth reports on the air pollution last week. Zhan Jiang, a journalism professor, said he believed that the leaders had decided “to face the problems.”

Some Chinese say that they and their compatriots, especially younger ones, are starting to realize that a secure life is dependent on the defense of certain principles, perhaps most crucially freedom of expression, and not just on the government meeting material needs. If a ruling party cannot police itself, then people want outsiders, like independent journalists, to do so.

Proof of that can be seen in the wild popularity of microblogs in which ordinary citizens frustrated by corruption post photographs of officials who wear expensive wristwatches. It was evident, too, when hundreds of ordinary people rallied in Guangzhou to defend Southern Weekend, a newspaper known for investigative reporting, against censorship.

“What’s interesting is that these protests were not over a practical issue but over a conceptual issue,” Hung Huang, a news media and fashion entrepreneur, said in a telephone interview. “People are beginning to understand these values are important to a better life, and beginning to understand that unless we all accept the same universal values, things will never really get better.”

Ms. Hung also said, though, that most Chinese were “very practical,” and that calls to action here were “very, very far away” from the kind of revolutionary fervor that had gripped the Arab world.

The Guangzhou rallies were fueled by an outpouring of support on the Internet for Southern Weekend,... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (1)Category: Events Date: 19.1.2013 22:16:11 Author: DITIOF

Extinction of wildlife resources
)))))))))))))))) Extinction of wildlife resources (((((((((((((((((

Extinction of rare species

As well as plants and animals, many species of wild animals and plants disappeared on Earth and about 25,000 species of vertebrates are threatened with extinction, this figure does not include the loss of inevitability of the smallest animals are invertebrates such as mollusks, insects, corals .... If alone species organic thought and birds, according to the EOWilson and Norman Meyers, the ratio extinction ratio of these two groups increased more than 1,000 times since 8000 BC until 1975 (Miller, 1988).

E. O. Wilson, along with biologists and environmental protection also said that if the common species disappear in 1975 was 100 species (ratio 1loai / 3 days); 1985 1,000 species (billions of three species / 1 day), he also warned that if the rate of deforestation today especially tropical forests, the destruction of wetlands and coral reefs is still continue, there may be 500,000 to 1 million species will be destroyed from 1975 to 2000, according to this estimate, the average of every 30 minutes passed with one permanently absent species on earth. If this hypothesis is true, then it is a great loss to humanity (Miller, 1988).

When analyzing the causes threatening the extinction of wildlife biologists and environmental protection are unified by the following main reasons:

· Human activities alter the habitat of wild species: humans always changing habitats of wildlife with activities such as the construction of the city, expand roads, construction of airports, ports, construction of dams and reservoirs, deforestation, the expansion of the farm, exploring the resort, sports .... Residence broken do directly affect the growth, reproduction, migration and the active life of the wildlife. Such as the construction of dams to cater for sports such as sailing, skateboarding ... have impeded spawning migrations of salmon on the rivers in Columbia decreased significantly, before the annual harvest is between 10 - 15 million of which today can only harvest about 2.5 million ( Chiras, 1991).

· Works with commercial hunting and hunting for food and sport hunting: this activity is the cause of extinction of wild species. Whaling is a typical example has threatened the survival of this species:

wild. Whaling is a typical example has threatened the survival of this species:

Table 4. Number of whale hunting before and after the first time (Miller, 1988)


Number before hunting

Current number of remaining








Sei (Includes



166 000


450 000


119 000

250 000


108 000

1.377 million









982 300

In Africa and especially in Kenya, hunting elephants for their ivory has caused a significant decline in the number of wild elephants, at the time of 1973 there are about 130,000 elephants in the forest, but now only about 20,000 left (Chiras, 1991). In India in the early 20th century, in the forests around 40,000 tigers but until now (1999) to about 2,000.

Sport Hunting is also a cause lead to the extinction of wild species if not controlled closely. So in some countries, such as Canada, Sweden, the United States ... have rules for sport hunting regulations and only those licensed to participate in this activity and at the same time every year added to the species hunted.

· The introduction of exotic species: The introduction of new species is a lesson for some... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 11:32:51 Author: nguyenthuat

The role of plant resources and wild animals to humans

__The role of plant resources and wild animals to humans

Wild animals and plants as resources capable of regeneration and has a very important role for the survival and development of humanity:

a. Economic

Wildlife reserves have great potential and have the ability to meet human needs for food-food and other raw materials such as leather, wool, spices, flavoring, wax, oil, oil, chemicals, paper, fibers, rubber, dye ...

It is estimated that about 90% of food and human food use are created from plants and animals that plants and animals are derived from wild species and undergoes a domesticated and improved form. Although this source of food and human food use from crops and livestock, but also some parts of the world people still use most food from wild animals ; such as in some parts of Ghana, Congo and other countries in West and Central Africa is home to 75% of animal protein extracted from wild animals.

In addition to the use as food, the wildlife is also exploring other parts of the body such as skin, hair, horns, etc. to make the costumes, ornaments and many other purposes; product This also has a great economic value. In Canada, the fur trade has to feed about 40,000 people hunting; during the hunting season from 1975 to 1976 they made $ 25 million fur mainly of Beaver, Mouse incense to, bobcat, Seals, Weasels Vison and Report; livestock also during this time also earned $ 17 million of which 90% is fur of mink Vison. In 1975, the United States has spent $ 1 billion to import products from the skins and furs of wild animals.

International trade in wild plants and animals also provide a large revenue, the developed countries wild animal South Africa, Dimbabwe, Namibia annual profit of 1.3 -2.4 million USD; Australia Kangaroo exports 1.8 million annual revenue is $ 8.5 million. Although the wildlife resources bring huge benefits to the economy in each country, but it is also one of the major concerns of mankind today.

b. Medical

Although only a very small part of plant and animal research subject of interest in medicine, but modern medicine depends a lot on that. A breakdown shows that about 40% of the prescriptions doctors give every year in the United States shows that there are drugs singly or in combination contain natural substances derived from higher plants ( 25%), from bacteria and fungi (13%) or animals (3%). Only in the United States, the drug is extracted from higher plants worth about $ 3 billion annually and this number continues to increase.

Important applications in medicine today can be told is:

* The substance extracted directly used to treat diseases such as Aspirin is widely used in the world is taken from the leaves of the willow tree in the tropics, penicillin from the fungus Penicillium and Streptomycin are taken from bacteria Streptococcus ....

* The substance extracted is used as the initial material for the synthesis of drugs such as hormone Corticosurrenale taken from the adrenal cortex of animals, compounds common steroids are synthesized from the steroid Sapogenin derived from the things ...

* The substance extracted is used as a model for the synthesis of drugs such as cocaine is derived from coca originating in South America, based on which one has produced the modern local anesthetic.

Without the activity of natural origin in the body of the wildlife, people are unlikely to detect the original activity that used or relied upon as a model for synthesis.

Currently, also discovered many wildlife species likely to use them for medical experiments and production of the vaccines used in the prevention of disease and an estimated 1,400 species of vascular plants and 10 % of marine species contain chemicals resistant cancer.

c. Genetic diversity

The conservation of genetic diversity in wild species is an urgent job in the current period,... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 10:8:7 Author: nguyenthuat

Protect and develop forest resources

** Protect and develop forest resources

Pending the arrival of humans, forest land cover most of the continent. In the history of human development on the old Age, people totally dependent on forests by hunting and gathering activities, these activities do not cause any damage to the forest. By the time people started breeding and cultivation, human activities harmful to forests, although this effect is somewhat limited the development of the forest but also not very significant.

Since the 3rd century BC onwards, the new forest really man attacked explore. The attack deforestation seen most clearly in Europe, then gradual population, agriculture is increasingly expanding and metallurgy appeared, people burn forests for planting, timber for fuel whether, as the, wear wooden boat, make friends ... on like narrowing forest. Along with the development industry, the population is increasingly concentrated in the urban forest makes more and more narrow.

a. Deforestation

* In Europe

Forests in Europe was destroyed early, mainly in Western Europe. Significant damage occurs from the Middle Ages (fifth century to the XII century) and lasted until the Renaissance (from the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century). Due to the growth of urban centers, cities, churches, industrial factories, shipyards and more; metallurgy and glass industry; agriculture as development ... to provide enough material for the above development needs to consume a lot of wood leads to deforestation narrow forest area significantly.

Then in the second half of the 19th century, the development of railway transport, the chemical industry and paper industry was born has increased demand for wood. Only on paper industry shows in 1850 worldwide paper production is only one million tonnes of paper / year and in 1990 to 80 million tons / year, the current demand is much higher.

* In the Middle East, North Africa and North America

In the Middle East, North Africa, the heavy deforestation mainly due to the drop breeding goats and sheep caused by population growth. For example, in Syria a small country of only 182,000 km2, about 2.4 million sheep and 1.2 million goats; Turkey with 775.000km2 area there were 26 million sheep and 20 million goats. So now the Middle East and North Africa is the world's largest forest depletion.

In North America, the causes of deforestation in North America is due to gains in the export of timber. Previously forest resources in the region seemingly endless, from the 15th century to the 18th century started with the timber brought to sell to Europe during this period do not have great effect;, but the pace exploitation increased since the second half of the 19th century brought into the alarm state forest.

* The destruction of tropical forests

Tropical forests formerly very large, up to 16 million km2 (10% of the earth) has only 9 million km2. Tropical rain forest biomass huge 500 - 800 dry tons / ha and varied in species composition; many documented that 50% of animal and plant species on Earth resides in the tropical forest of , an average of 10 km2 of forest, there were over 1,500 species of flowering plants, 125 species of mammals, 400 species of birds, 100 species of reptiles, 60 species of amphibians, 150 species of butterflies and 42,000 species of insects (Liem, 1990).

Due to demand for wood resources, increasing fuel source that is the cause of the uncontrolled exploitation of forests; same time due to the pressure of increasing population growth in the past decade led to the exploration forests for farmland, residential and airport expansion, urban development, construction of dams ... and not to mention the devastation of war and forest fires, this is the reason for the forest as fast shrinking.

* The destruction of forests in Vietnam

1945 forest area in Vietnam is 14 million ha at present... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 8:34:5 Author: nguyenthuat

The world's forest resources, the benefits of forest
1. Forest resources in the world

Uneven distribution of forest on the continent in terms of area as well as the genre. As a whole, the forests account for 29 percent of the mainland area corresponding to 3837 million ha, including 1,280 million hectares of pine forests in the temperate zone and tropical welding, 2557 million ha of forests in the tropics and the equator.

Table 1. Forest area on the continent (Deveze, 1973)

The Continent



(Million hectares)

The total area





area (%)


per capita


Europe (excluding the former Soviet Union)

The former Soviet Union

North America

Latin America







































Forest reflect climatic belt through the structure and its components:

- In the polar regions: the weather is too cold for the big trees do not develop mainly algae, fungi, lichens and some herbaceous species; development in the three summer months make up the vegetation layer called is the radio resources.

- In the temperate zone: the moderate climate and four distinct seasons in the formation of three forest types: coniferous forest, mixed forest and the seasonal deciduous broadleaf forest. Also in parts of temperate regions with a long dry season, the vegetation layer of herbaceous species called steppes.

- In tropical and sub-tropical: hot and humid climate and precipitation. Tropical forests are diverse in species composition. Mostly broad leaved and evergreen leaves year round, made up of 3-5 storey wooden trees. This type of forest yield the highest timber.

- In hot dry climates such as the desert and semi-desert: caused by high temperatures and drought sparse vegetation layer, including poor herbaceous species, shrubs, small trees called Savane.

When away from the equator towards the poles, forest vegetation change on tree size, type and structure ... is due to differences in climate, such as temperature, humidity and light intensity of the sun. We also see similar changes gradually when going from plain to the mountains.

Table 2. Area and productivity of the world's forest types (Deveze, 1973)

Forest ecosystems in the world

(Million km2)

Productivity g/m2/nam


Tropical deciduous forest

Of temperate coniferous forest

Temperate broad-leaved forest

Pine forests of the North

Temperate grasslands



Desert and semi-desert

Deserts and polar regions





















2.The benefits of forest

- Forests are sources of timber and wood products: forests provide wood used as building materials, decoration materials, supply of chemical products, providing textile, pulp , taking essential oils, resins, dyes, etc. According to the literature shows that the worldwide average with 45 percent of wood is used as fuel,... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 6:59:9 Author: nguyenthuat

Forest resources and its benefits
()Forest resources and its benefits


1. The importance of forests for human life

Forest is a complex system consisting of elements, chemistry and biology interact with each other, is a master of the climate, land, animals, plants and microorganisms; a super body evolved relatively slowly, to participate in the cycle C, O2, N2, H2O, and many other minerals. The forest also plays an important role in regulating the climate, water retention to prevent soil erosion, flood control, anti-desertification, crop protection against wind and ...

a. Forest with the atmosphere

The atmosphere and life on the planet is the first unified the basic conditions in its composition. Atmospheric composition on Earth virtually unchanged although they are constantly being absorbed or chemically attached to the combined in geochemical cycles Born of the natural, have contributed role of forests.

The most important role of forests to atmospheric oxygen, oxygen is a particularly important factor for the survival of the organism. Composition of oxygen in the air is not constant, although oxygen into the oxidation reactions in various types such as ensuring that the respiration of animals and plants, the transformation of organic compounds and take series of chemical reactions in nature .... Atmospheric oxygen is lost will be refunded by way of photosynthesis in green plants. It is estimated that, every year by way of photosynthesis, plants produce about 1011 tons of organic matter and to get out of an oxygen free atmosphere such equivalent; among these trees take on the majority of . Such forests are key factors involved in maintaining the balance of oxygen in the composition of the atmosphere.

In addition to the role the supply of oxygen to the atmosphere, forests also a fresh air filter prevents dust, limited variety of bacteria and viruses harmful to humans and other animals. The forest also plays an important role in regulating the climate of the earth. Therefore, forests are considered the green lungs of the earth

b. For forest land

Forests and have a close relationship with each other as shown by forest to participate in the process of formation and development of land; opposite is the basis of maintaining the existence and development of forests. Forest land-holding system features important elements essential to the life of humans and other animals.

Obtain nutrients from forest land to development; foliage fall will be the microorganisms that decompose into humus and humus mineralization continues for new nutrient supply for plants. According to the estimates, under the forest canopy net 5-6 years of age, the amount of foliage average annual loss of 5-10 t / ha equivalent to about 80-90 kg N2, 8 kg 8 kg P2O5 and K2O (Nguyen Van Truong, 1989).

Biological processes between the land and the forest is continuous, to ensure the fertility of the land and to the biological productivity of the forest. Biological circulation in forest ecosystems will be sustainable in equilibrium if there is no human intervention.

Reflect the nature of the forest land: Depending on the type of land and different terrain conditions will form the different forest types. Mangroves in coastal forest tree species different from hills, although in the same tropical climate belt.

For example: in the mangroves we meet the specific species of mangrove land that these plants do not meet them in the hills ... Inland from the coast, high soil salinity gradually lower so the plants grow in areas that are different: on coastal marsh soil is Mam, followed by trees, the spot in more depth the cup, and on dry land as his father is .... Plant species to determine the nature of the soil can be considered as the indicator plant.

Forests protect the soil against erosion: where slope and high rainfall, the erosion of rain and speed of... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 4:17:48 Author: nguyenthuat

Environmental and ecological factors
<>Environmental and ecological factors

1. The concept

* Environment includes all what surrounded organisms, all abiotic and biotic factors have a direct or indirect impact on the life, growth and reproduction of organisms.

There are four common environments: soil, water, air and environment, biological environment.

* The ecological factor is the abiotic factors, biotic has a direct or indirect impact on growth, development and reproduction of organisms.

There are three groups of ecological factors:

- Factor infertility: includes all non-living elements of nature that affects an organism, such as light, temperature, humidity, etc.

-Biotic factor: includes all the effects of other organisms to organisms.

-The human factor: includes any direct or indirect impact on human organism.

2. Effect of ecological factors on the organism

a) The effect of abiotic factors

* Temperature

Temperature often affect the activity of living organisms.

- Plant and animal thermal variables such as amphibians, reptiles directly dependent on the ambient temperature. Ambient temperature up or down, their body temperature also increase or decrease.

Isothermal animals such as birds and mammals due to its ability to regulate and maintain stable body temperature should be able to spread and live everywhere. For example, in the North Pole ice (frozen to - 40o C) still have polar foxes (temperature 38 C) and the white wooden chicken (temperature 43 oC) live.

- Ecological Limits: The different species react to temperature. For example, tilapia in our country die at temperatures below 5.6 oC and 42oC and the most favorable growth at 30oC.

5.6 oC temperature called the lower limit, 42oC called limits on and 30oC are the poles upon the temperature for tilapia in Vietnam. 5.6 ° C to 42oC called limited ecological tolerance or limits on the temperature of the tilapia in Vietnam.

- Ambient temperature rise increases the rate of physiological processes in the organism. In animals variable temperature, the higher the ambient temperature, the shorter their life cycle. For example, the fruit fly life cycle (from egg to adult fly) at 25 ° C is 10 days and nights at 18oC is 17 days and nights.

Variation of environmental temperature also affects the morphological (overheating tree will be barren) and ecology (migratory birds in the winter, summer desert rodents sleep in the hot dry season)

- Total effective temperature (S)

+ Each species has a certain required amount of heat (heat total) to complete a stage of development or in the development cycle called the total effective temperature (degrees / day), respectively.

+ Total heat effective thermal constant need for one cycle (or period) the development of an animal of heat.

Total thermal efficiency is calculated by the formula: = (TC). D

T: ambient temperature

D: development time

C: temperature development threshold

+ C does not change in the same species should equal the total effective heat:

S = (T1 - C). D1 = (T2-C). D2 = (T3-C). D3 ...

* Humidity and water

- Water is an important component of an organism: from 50% to 98% by weight of the tree, from 50% (in) to 99% (in the gut cavity) of animal body weight.

- Each terrestrial animals and plants have a limited tolerance for humidity. Type migratory locust has the fastest growth rate at 70% humidity. With moisture like creatures (pregnant again, wax, mosquitoes, frogs, etc.), dry like creatures (`camel grass, cactus, a variety of lizards, prairie mouse).

- Water a major influence on the distribution of organisms. Little desert creatures, and in the humid tropics, and many water is very crowded creatures.

* Lighting

- Sunlight is the basic... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 2:33:32 Author: nguyenthuat

Biosphere and resources
<>Biosphere and resources

1. Biosphere

Biosphere is the space creatures reside, covering the surface of the earth, as deep as 100 meters in the lithosphere, the entire aquatic atmosphere to deep sea over 8km, up to 20 km in the atmosphere. An estimated two million species reside in the biosphere

2. Non-renewable resources and recycling

* Mineral resources:

Minerals are natural materials, organic or inorganic origin, mainly in the land. There are two types:

- Mineral fuels: Coal (derived from the identified fossil plants), oil and gas fire (derived from plants or uncompleted decomposition of organic matter in the soil)

In addition, the energy in the biosphere include sunlight, wind, waves, tides.

- Minerals material: include gold, copper, tin, lead, aluminum ...

The exploitation of mineral resources poses the risk of resource depletion and environmental pollution is increasing.

* Resources regeneration:

- Forests and forestry: In addition to providing wood, forest also has a huge effect in the regulation of ground water: increased humidity, which reduces water flow and limit floods, limit erosion worn.

- Land and agriculture: where food production, food for humans and livestock. Land is also a place to build a house, build industrial parks, roads ...

- Fishery resources: marine and freshwater resources have high economic value.

People have and `are indiscriminate exploitation of renewable resources, and` forest land increasingly shrinking degradation, many animal species, aquatic resources overfishing (whales, pork, tuna, mackerel, lobster, etc.) have become rare.

3. Human impact and its consequences for the biosphere.

* The impact of humans to the biosphere

- During the existence and development, people often direct impact on natural and modified habitats. These activities have affected climate, from which a strong impact on the biosphere.

- The population growth with industrialization has affected first and `forest land and increasing environmental pollution.

* The problem of environmental pollution

- Concept: Pollution is the unexpected change, physics, chemistry, biology of the air, land, water and living environment and cause harmful effects immediately or in the future to power health and `human life, affecting the production process, to the loss of cultural property and human resources reserve.

- The contaminant

+ The common industrial gases

+ Pesticides and toxic chemicals

+ Herbicides

+ The mutagenic factors

4. Environmental protection and sustainable development

* Environmental Protection

- Environmental protection: the conscious action to preserve the integrity and stability of the environment in sustainable development and improving their quality of life.

- Environmental Protection Act includes provisions on the rational use of natural resources and the environment, prevent negative impacts, recover losses, to constantly improve the potential of natural resources and environmental quality, in order to improve the material and spiritual life of the people. Environmental protection by law is a very important measure.

* Sustainable Development

- Sustainable development is development that meets present needs without harming the ability to ensure the needs of future generations, can improve the quality of life within the acceptable .

- The development does not damage the environment, in which people always combine personal interests with community interests (personal interests, national, international) in order to protect the environment and improve the quality of life for everyone
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Sources, Resources Date: 19.1.2013 1:7:7 Author: nguyenthuat

Forest resources and components
<>Forest resources and components

1. What is a forest? Morozov (1912), "Forest is a community of trees, in which they exhibit mutual interaction, gives rise to the new phenomenon that is not specific to the individual trees. In the forest not only the relationship between the forest together, but also interaction between forest land and air environment; forest capable of self-healing ".


Three characteristics of the forest

(1) The impact between the trees and between trees and other plants

(2) The components of the forest depends not only on the environment but ourselves also environmental repercussions.

(3) Forest with self-recovery capabilities

 2. The components of the forest

 Forest stand. A homogeneous composition forest trees, shrubs and lawns live on a plot of land is called a forest (Figure 1.4). This concept is consistent with the concept of plant communities - community of many plants.

 The components of the forest (forest).

 1. Clothing sale: set of trees forming the forest.

 Interesting content description

 - The tree species. Composition and rate of the wood species of the enemy formation. Forest composition is determined in units of tenths. For example: 0.5 SD + 0.3 Dr + 0.2 Lk; where wildcards SD = Black Stars, Dr. = otter Oil, Lk = other species. Based on the composition and role of forest species, it is divided into:

Dominant tree species or ecological species established populations - these are the species plays a major role in the creation of the enemy.

Dominant tree species or ecological species dependent - these are the species that our lives depend on other species.

Pants sale (cooperative) single advantage: one dominant species

Receptor populations (communities) have the advantage: many species of the same advantages.


- Forest absolute age. Individuals forming forests of equal age.

- Forest relative age. These individuals formed forest age difference

at each age level. Each age level is 2 - 3 years (fast-growing trees) or 5 -

10 years (average plant growth) or 10 years (slow-growing tree).

- Forests of different ages. These individuals form different age forest.

- Clothing receptor (forest, forest) of mixed age. Forest consisting of two or more than two

formation of forest trees of equal age (absolute or relative).

- Other enemies mixed age. Forest consists of two or more species forming forests of different age.

- Net enemy species of the same age. Wood formation trees of equal age.

- Net enemy species age. Wood formation trees of different age.

2. Regeneration. The young generation of tree species live and grow under the forest canopy. If the extraction and removal of the mother plant floor, plant regeneration ability

create a new enemy.

- Plant seeds. This is the age of the tree layer in the range of a few months. The basic features of the seedlings is dependent on nutrients stored in the particles, the fundamental vitality depends on stocks and genetic characteristics of the seed.

- Tree-plated. It is the older generation of timber often about a few months to 1-2 years, conventional height not exceeding 50 cm, have the ability to assimilate.

- Seedlings or young plants. It's renewable generation plants usually over two years old, height beyond the plant floor and shrubs and some low level.

3. Low level or tree downstairs. Collection of shrubs and some

other tree species in climate conditions and certain land can not form new forests.

4. Fresh carpet. Herbaceous plants live and grow under the forest canopy.

5. The forest floor. Floor rung1 (forest litter or buffer layer) is a layer of falling material (leaves, flowers,... read more
Post comment (0)View photo (5)Category: Breatharianism Date: 17.1.2013 11:20:54 Author: nguyenthuat

<< Read more    



Registration Forgot password


Breatharianism (1)
Practical guide (0)
Known Breatharians (1)
Point of view (0)
Sources, Resources (0)
Events (0)
About Website (0)


New message
Contact us




June 2010

All about breatharians © 2010